Last Revision : DAVID TOUITOU & JANINE JACQUES April 2014
First published : Touitou David, 2005

(last updated : 19-august 2014)

DOWNLOAD THE PDF FILE

Aknowledgments : Dominique Lamy, Bernard Duré, Pierre Clovel, Michael Tosato, Loic Limpalaër, Michael Tosato, John K Tucker

A few more species and new species from this area will be added to our work later (2014), after the publication of Dominique Lamy' Book.


LINK : Conus daucus group IDENTIFICATION KEYS (Conus daucus, Conus boui, Conus norai, Conus aff. riosi) Touitou David, Feb 2015



Attenuiconus attenuatus Reeve, 1844

Rarity : rare
Size : 20-35 mm
Distribution : Martinique & Guadeloupe

Conus attenuatus
(Martinique)
Conus attenuatus
(Guadeloupe)
 Conus attenuatus
(Guadeloupe)
Conus attenuatus
(Martinique)
Conus attenuatus
(Martinique) (2)
 

 (2) http://www.shellspassion.com

 

Dauciconus boui da Motta, 1988

Rarity : rare
Size : 20-40 mm

Distribution : Martinique


We consider it as a valid species. So much differences between both C. boui and C. daucus : Shell pattern, animal color, average size, deph, habitat are completely different between these species.We have collected both species live and assume totally our choice of level specie according to da Motta. It can be found during the daytime at deph from 10 to 40 meters hidding in grass and sand, often not burried, just laying. It seems more common in 25-35m. In Martinique, it have been found in the south caribbean coast only.

 Conus boui
Orange variation
(Martinique)
  Conus boui
Orange variation
(Martinique)
  Conus boui
Orange variation
(Martinique)
  Conus boui
Yellow variation
(Martinique)
 Conus boui
Yellow variation
(Martinique)
Conus boui
Holoype (**)
(Martinique)

(**) : Conus Biodiversity website Repository:  MHNG Type Locality:  Pte. de la Baleine, SW coast of Martinique. Photo Credit: Alan J. Kohn

 

 

Kohniconus centurio Born, 1778

Rarity : rare
Size : - mm
Distribution : Guadeloupe

Several populations occured in Guadeloupe by the past. Some have declined after Marilyn hurricane. It could be found between 8 and 15 meters.

Conus centurio
(St Barthélémy)
Conus centurio
(St Barthélémy)
 Conus centurio
Holotype (**)
 
 
 

(**) : Conus Biodiversity website Repository:  NHMW Type Locality:  Puerto Plata, Santo Domingo Photo Credit: Anita Eschne

 

 

Poremskiconus colombi (Monnier & Limpalaër, 2012)
Gradiconus burryae Clench, 1942

Rarity : common beached
Size : 15-30 mm
Distribution : Martinique

These small shells have been a real nightmare for collectors and malacologists. Before it was described (2012), this very local specie from Le Vauclin (Martinique) was sometime named as Conus burraye which is found in Florida, effectively it is close to this specie but it can be easily separated when you look carefully to the shells though (spire). Very recently it have been finally described as Conus colombi. Some collectors related these shells to Conus hennequini but they are clearly very different. I have found hundreds of empty shells in Le vauclin in sand patches between grass fields in 2-4 meters of water. Shells must live in this habitat and may be found during the night.

Conus colombi
(Martinique)
Conus colombi
(Martinique)
Conus colombi
(Martinique)
Conus colombi
(Martinique)
Conus colombi
(Martinique)
Conus colombi
(Martinique)
Conus colombi
Holotype (*)
(Martinique)
Conus colombi
Holotype (*)
(Martinique)
Conus burraye
Holotype (**)
(Florida)
Conus hennequini
Holotype (**)
(Martinique)
Conus hennequini
Holotype (**)
(Martinique) 
Conus colombi
Paratype (*)
(Martinique)
Conus colombi
Paratype (*)
(Martinique)
Conus colombi
Paratype (*)
(Martinique)
Conus colombi
Paratype (*)
(Martinique)
 
 

(*) : in the courtesy of Loïc limpalaër
(**) : Conus Biodiversity website
 


Dauciconus daucus Hwass, 1792

Rarity : uncommon now
Size : 30-70 mm
Distribution : Martinique & Guadeloupe

This specie is very variable in color. Animal color may also vary. The most common color is the nice orange that gave its name as the "carrot's cone". Though, yellow, brown and white shells may be found too. The white ones may have also nice pink spots and sometime a pinkish overall color too. This shell may be found since the first meters hidden in rocky fissures often camouflated with it's "algae periostracum"; big gem specimens are difficult to find now.

 Conus daucus
(Martinique)
Conus daucus
(Martinique)
Conus daucus
(Martinique)
Conus daucus
(Martinique)
Conus daucus
(Martinique)
Conus daucus
 
Lectotype (**)

(**) Conus Biodiversity website ( Representation of Lectotype of Conus daucus Hwass in Bruguière, 1792 Repository: Chemnitz (1788: pl. 144A, fig. L)

Conus daucus
(Martinique)
Conus daucus
(Martinique)
Conus daucus
(Martinique)
 Conus daucus
(Guadeloupe)
 Conus daucus
(Guadeloupe)

 

 

Chelyconus ermineus Born, 1778

Rarity : actually probably disappeared from this area
Size :40-80 mm
Distribution : Martinique & Guadeloupe

While I was living in Martinique (2000-2002), it was really hard to find just like C. spurius. I only found fresh dead specimens in 10-20m. Among actually known species,  probably the only piscivorous specie of the West Atlantic area. This specie used to be common in the past but for an unkkown (epidemic?) reason populations have declined in Martinique and Guadeloupe fastly years ago such as Conus spurius. Actually (2013) live shells have still not been collected anymore.

In Martinique, divers have seen (before year 2000) hundreds of empty fresh dead shells (south Martinique) in their diving spots, this tend to show that this specie have been decimated by some pollution, virus, bacteria, parasite ?

Divers (july 2014) have seen specimens of this specie in -40m in Guadeloupe.

  Conus ermineus
(Martinique)
 Conus ermineus
(Martinique)
 Conus ermineus
(Guadeloupe)
 Conus ermineus
(Martinique)
  Conus ermineus
(Martinique)
 Conus ermineus
Lectotype (**)

(**) : Conus Biodiversity website Repository:  NHMW, Photo Credit: Alan J. Kohn, Type Locality:  "Indiis," from Martini (1773)

 

 

Atlanticonus granulatus Linnaeus, 1758
 

Rarity : very rare
Size : 30-70 mm
Distribution : Martinique & Guadeloupe

This very nice and rare shell my be found deeply hidden in rocky crevices. I only found one empty shells in 5m of water in north Martinique (Carribean sea). Divers have found also some fresh dead specimens in 5-10m in south of Martinique (Caribbean sea). Specimens have been also found on the Atlantic side like the fift specimen shown (Guadeloupe).

Conus granulatus
(South Martinique)
Conus granulatus
(South Martinique)
Conus granulatus
(North Martinique)
Conus granulatus
Lectotype (**)
Conus granulatus
(N-E Guadeloupe) 
Conus granulatus
(South Martinique) 

(**) : Conus Biodiversity website Repository:  LSL Type Locality:  Jamaica Photo Credit: LSL  (Linnean Society of London)

 

 

Purpuriconus hennequini Petuch, 1993

Rarity : ?
Size :  mm
Distribution : Martinique

This shell is collected in a very rectricted area.

Conus hennequini
Holotype (**)
(Martinique)
Conus hennequini
Holotype (**)
(Martinique)
     
 

(**) : Conus Biodiversity website Repository:  MNHN Type Locality:  La Vauclin, Martinique, French West Indies. Photo Credit: Alan J. Kohn

 

 

Purpuriconus magellanicus Hwass in Bruguière, 1792

Rarity : Rare now
Size : mm
Distribution : Guadeloupe

This tiny specie may only be found in a restricted area and from 6 to 18 meters. It was found in less than 6 meters by the past but it have been overcollected by some at this depth.

 Conus magellanicus
(Guadeloupe)
 Conus magellanicus
(Guadeloupe)
Conus magellanicus
Lectotype (**)
 Conus magellanicus
(Guadeloupe) 
 
 

(**) : Conus Biodiversity website Repository:  MHNG Type Locality:  Strait of Magellan [erroneous] Photo Credit: Alan J. Kohn


 

Dalliconus mazei Deshayes, 1874 

Rarity : deep water specie
Size :  40 - 50mm
Distribution : Martinique & Guadeloupe

This deep water specie may be found from 90-100m of water.

Conus mazei
(Guadeloupe, -250m)
Conus mazei
(Guadeloupe, -250m)
 Conus mazei
Holoype (**)
  Conus mazei
Holoype (**)
 
 

(**) : Conus Biodiversity website Repository:  MNHN  Type Locality:  Martinique; 90 m Photo Credit: Alan J. Kohn

 

 

Jaspidiconus mindanus Hwass in Bruguière, 1792

Rarity : uncommon
Size : 10-30 mm
Distribution : Martinique & Guadeloupe

I found this species in 15m of water. It used to be easy to find by the past. This species may be found crawling on the sandy areas of the rocky shorelines at night. During the daytime it is buried in the sand patches.

Conus mindanus
 (Martinique)
Conus mindanus
 (Martinique)
Conus mindanus
 (Martinique)
 Conus mindanus
 (Guadeloupe)
 Conus mindanus
 (Martinique)
  Conus mindanus
Lectotype (**)
Conus mindanus
 (Martinique)
Conus mindanus
 (Martinique)
 Conus mindanus
 (Guadeloupe)
   
 

 

(**) : Conus Biodiversity website Repository:  MHNG Type Locality:  N. of Nellies Point, South Lake Worth, Florida; 46 m Photo Credit: Alan J. Kohn

 

 

Gladioconus mus Hwass in Bruguière, 1792 

Rarity : common to uncommon
Size : 20-50 mm
Distribution : Martinique & Guadeloupe

This is not a rare shell but is is hard to spot sometimes due to it's color. It lives usually in 1-10 meters of water along rocky shorelines in small crevices or under rocks.

 Conus mus
(Martinique)
  Conus mus
(Martinique)
 Conus mus
(Martinique)
 Conus mus
(Martinique)
 Conus mus
(Martinique)
 Conus mus
(Martinique)
 Conus mus
(Guadeloupe)
   Conus mus
(Guadeloupe)
Conus mus
Lectotype (**)
Conus mus
Lectotype (**)
 
 

(**) : Conus Biodiversity website Repository:  MHNG Type Locality:  Guadeloupe Photo Credit: Alan J. Kohn

 

 

Dauciconus norai da Motta & G. Raybaudi Massilia, 1992

Rarity : actually rare
Size : 30-60 mm
Distribution : Martinique

This shell is rarer than in the past. It seems to occur deeper that Conus daucus. Live shells usually come from 20-45 meters of water. Recent finds in Guadeloupe could extend the actual range of this supposed endemic specie.

 Conus norai
(Martinique)
 Conus norai
(Martinique)
 Conus norai
(Martinique)
 Conus norai
(Martinique)
 Conus norai
(Martinique)
Conus norai
Holotype (**)
Conus norai
(Martinique)
Conus norai
(Martinique)
Conus norai
(Martinique) 
Conus norai
(Martinique) 
Conus norai
(Martinique) 
Conus norai
(Martinique) 

(**) Conus Biodiversity website Repository:  MHNG Type Locality:  Pte. de la Baleine, SW coast of Martinique. Photo Credit: Alan J. Kohn

 

 

Perplexiconus puncticulatus Hwass in Bruguière, 1792
Perplexiconus puncticulatus f. columba Hwass in Bruguière, 1792

Rarity : common
Size : 10-20 mm

Distribution : Martinique & Guadeloupe

This shell in commonly found on the Atlantic side, in 1m of water. If you swin in many beaches in Martinique, you may find hundreds of empty shells of C. puncticulatus and C. puncticulatus f. columba. They live in grass fields and sand patches. They bury in the sand during the daytime. Sometime (breeding season ?) they can be found grouped even during the daytime.

Conus puncticulatus
Lectotype (**)
Conus puncticulatus
 (Martinique)
 Conus puncticulatus
 (Martinique)
 
 
 

 (**) Conus Biodiversity website Repository:  MHNG Type Locality:  Colón, Panama Photo Credit: Alan J. Kohn

Conus puncticulatus f. columba
(Guadeloupe)
Conus puncticulatus f. columba
(Martinique)
 
 
 
 

 

 

Jaspidiconus pusio Hwass in Bruguière, 1792
Jaspidiconus pusillus Lamarck, 1810

Rarity : uncommon
Size : 15-20 mm

Distribution : Martinique & Guadeloupe

The name Conus pusillus have been used since Vink have revealed that it was a synonym of Conus pusio earlier described (1792 versus 1810), that is the reason why the taxa to be actually used is Conus pusio Hwass, 1792

Conus pusio
(Martinique)
Conus pusillus
Lectotype (**)
Conus pusio
(guadeloupe) 
 
 
 

(**) Conus Biodiversity website Repository:  MHNG Type Locality:  Guinea [erroneous] Photo Credit: Alan J. Kohn

 

 

Stephanoconus regius Gmelin, 1791 & Conus citrinus Gmelin, 1791
Rarity : common
Size : 30-70 mm
Distribution : Martinique & Guadeloupe

This specie is commonly found from shallow water to 20-30 meters deep. It's feeding on the well known "fire-worm". This specie is very variable. We could say that every specimen is unique. In my opinion the best way to separate them is to arrange specimens in several color variations : the dark ones (overall dark brown pattren), the clear ones (overall clear pattern), the yellow and orange ones that I call "citrinus variation" and of course all the orthers that are intergrades between these three main pattern color variations. In 2000-2002 I sent a lot of samples for molecular research on this species and results have shown that there was only one specie. So for that reason the citrinus name must be used as a variation name only. The animal is clearly the same in all kind of variations. Conus regius can be found during daytime resting sided to huge rocks, in sandy crevices along the rocky shoreline. It may also burry like most cones. It can be foudn also crwling during the day time, usually around 16h00, before the end of the day.


(**) Conus Biodiversity website
Representation of Lectotype of Conus ammiralis regius Gmelin, 1791 Repository: Martini (1773: pl. 62, fig. 684)
Representation of Lectotype of Conus citrinus Gmelin, 1791 Repository: Martini (1773: pl. 61, fig. 681)

 

 Conus regius
  Clear variation
(Martinique)
   Conus regius
  Clear variation
(Martinique)
 Conus regius
  Clear variation
(Martinique)
 Conus regius
  Clear variation
(Martinique)
   Conus regius
  Clear variation
(Martinique)
  Conus regius
  Clear variation
(Martinique)
Conus regius
Dark variation
(Martinique)
Conus regius
Dark variation
(Martinique)
 Conus regius
Dark variation
(Martinique)
Conus regius
Dark variation
(Martinique)
Conus regius
Dark variation
(Martinique)
 Conus regius
Dark variation
(Martinique)
 Conus regius
citrinus variation
(Martinique)
 Conus regius
citrinus variation
(Martinique)
 Conus regius
citrinus variation
(Martinique)
 Conus regius
citrinus variation
(Martinique)
 Conus regius
citrinus variation
(Martinique)
 Conus regius
citrinus intergrade variation
(Martinique)
 Conus regius
citrinus variation
(Martinique)
 Conus regius
citrinus variation
(Martinique)
 Conus regius
citrinus variation
(Martinique)
 Conus regius
citrinus variation
(Martinique)
 Conus regius
citrinus variation
(Martinique)
 Conus regius
citrinus variation
(Martinique)

 

 

Dauciconus aff. riosi Petuch, 1986

Rarity : very rare
Size : 40-70 mm
Distribution : Martinique

This shell is very rare. I only found one empty shell in 40m of water. Though vey nice specimens have been found fresh dead by the past in Fort-de-France bay in moderately deep water (40-60m). It's a very nice shell and It may reach big sizes. Actually Conus riosi apply to Martinique populations bu also to other localities populations like the Brasil one. Some authors are actually describing this shell in order to be a new specie.

Conus riosi
(Martinique)
Conus riosi
(Martinique)
 Conus riosi  
Holotype (**)
Conus riosi
(Martinique)
Conus riosi
(Martinique)
Conus riosi
(Martinique)

(**) Conus Biodiversity website Repository:  MORG Type Locality:  Salvador, Bahia State, Brazil; Trawled 50 m. Photo Credit: Paulo Màrcio Costa

 

 

Lindaconus spurius Gmelin, 1791

Rarity : Rare now
Size :  mm
Distribution : Martinique & Guadeloupe

While I was living in Martinique (2000-2002), it was really hard to find. I have nerver found a live specimen, only very old broken parts of shells. In Guadeloupe, live specimens may be hardly found from 5 to 10 meters in various habitats such as rubble and grass or near mangroves areas. This specie used to be common in the past but for an unkkown reason (epidemic?) populations have declined in Martinique and Guadeloupe fastly years ago such as Conus ermineus.

 Conus spurius
(Martinique)
 Conus spurius
(Guadeloupe)
  Conus spurius
(Guadeloupe)
 Conus spurius
(Guadeloupe)
  Conus spurius
(Martinique)
  Conus spurius
(Martinique)
 Conus spurius
(Guadeloupe)
       
 

 


Jaspidiconus verrucosus
Hwass, 1792
Jaspidiconus jaspideus f. verrucosus Hwass, 1792
Jaspidiconus jaspideus gmelin, 1791

Rarity :
Size : 15-20 mm
Distribution : Guadeloupe

Could be a subspecie of Conus jaspideus. Actually named as a form of Conus jaspideus by most authors.

 Conus verrucosus
(Guadeloupe)